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运用社会工作方法“内外兼治”帮教邪教痴迷人员

时间:2021-05-12 来源:广东省反邪教网 作者:陈觉

  XIEJIAOWENTISHISHEHUIZHILIZHONGDEYIGEWANJI,QIXINGQIYUSHEHUIXIANDAIHUAFAZHANGUOCHENGZHONGCHANSHENGDESHEHUIWEIJIYIJIXINLIWEIJIMIQIEXIANGGUAN,SHEJIJINGJI、ZHENGZHI、WENHUA、SHEHUIGUANXIDENGLINGYUDEWENTI,SHIZHUDUOSHEHUIMAODUNDEZONGHEFANYING。QIZHONGJIAOYUZHUANHUAXIEJIAOCHIMIRENYUANSHICHULIXIEJIAOWENTIDEZHIBENZHICE,LILAISHINANDIAN。ZHENDUIRENMENXINXIEDEYUANYIN,KEYIYUNYONGSHEHUIGONGZUOFANGFA,DIAODONGGEZHONGSHEHUIZIYUAN,“NEIWAIJIANZHI”XIEJIAOCHIMIRENYUAN,BANGZHUTAMENZAISHEHUIHUAYIHUIGUISHEHUIZHENGCHANGSHENGHUO。

  一、人们痴迷邪教的内外原因分析

  GENJUXINLIXUEMASILUOXUYAOCENGCILILUN,RENLEIXUQIUBAOKUOSHENGLIXUYAO(YI、SHI、ZHUDENG)、ANQUANXUYAO(RENSHENANQUAN、JIANKANGBAOHUDENG)、SHEJIAOXUYAO(GUISHU、YOUYI、AIQINGDENG)、ZUNZHONGXUYAO(ZIZUN、SHENFEN、DIWEIDENG)HEZIWOSHIXIANXUYAO。CAIQUXINGDONGMANZUZHEIXIEXUYAOSHITUIDONGRENLEIXINGWEIDENEIZAIDONGLI。

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  FENXIXIEJIAORENYUANDECHIMIYUANYINHEZHENGJIE,BUNANFAXIANTAMENPUBIANCUNZAIZHEJINGJI、JIATING、JIUYE、JIAOYU、YILIAO、ZHUFANG、YANGLAODENGSHEHUIBAOZHANGBUZUDEWENTI,RUJINGJIPINKUN、SHIYEHUODISHOURU、JIATINGGUANXISHIHE、YINBINGZHIPINFANPIN、ZHUFANGKUNNAN、GONGZUOCUOZHE、QINGGANCUOZHE、XINLIJIHUAN、LAOWUSUOYIDENG。YEJIGECENGCIDEXUQIUMANZUDOUCUNZAIYIDINGCHENGDUSHANGDEZHANGAI,SHIDAOZHITAMENXUNQIUXINYANGXIEJIAOQUJIEJUEXIANSHIWENTIZHEIYICUOWUXUANZEDEZHONGYAOGONGTONGYUANYIN。ERXINYANGXIEJIAOWANGWANGHUIZAOCHENGXINDEKUNJING,SHIXIEJIAOXINYANGWENTIYUQITAXIANSHIWENTIJIAOCHAGANRAN,XINGCHENGEXINGXUNHUAN,SHENZHIDIEJIASHENGJI,GENGZENGJIATAMENMIANDUI、JIEJUEKUNNANDENANDU,WANGWANGSHITAMENNINGYUANDUOZAIXIEJIAOYINGZAODEXIANGYATALIHUIBIWENTI,ZUAISIXIANGZHUANHUA。

  RUGUOJIANGXIEJIAOBIZUOSHIYICHANGWENYIDEHUA,QICHUANBOXUYAOMANZUYIXIASANGEYAOSU:YISHICHUANRANYUAN,ERSHICHUANBOTUJING,SANSHIYIGANRENQUN。ZHENGSHIYINWEISHEHUISHANGCUNZAIZHEDALIANGYIGANRENQUN,XIEJIAODECHUANBOYUFAZHANCAIYOULETURANG,CHENGWEIKENENG。 YANJIUBIAOMINGXIEJIAOCHIMIRENYUANWANGWANGJUYOUYIXIEGONGTONGDEXINLITEZHENG,RUMIXIN、MANGCONG、PIANZHI、YISHOUANSHIXINGDENG;TONGSHITAMENHAIWANGWANGZAOYUGUOYIXIEZHONGYAOSHENGHUOSHIJIANDEXIJI,QUECUNZAIBULIYUJIEJUEWENTIDEQINGXU、SIWEIMOSHIHUOYOUPIANCHADESANGUAN,RUBULAOERHUODESIXIANGHUOYUSHIXIWANGQIUSHENBAIFOJIEJUEDEXIGUANDENG。

  ZHENGRUXIBANYAZHUMINGFANXIEJIAOZHUANJIAPEIPEI.LUODELIGESISUOSHUO:YIGERENZHISUOYIHUICHENGWEIXIEJIAODEFULU,JUBEILESIGETIAOJIAN:YISHIYOUMOUZHONGXINYANGHECHONGBAIDETIANXING;ERSHIYOUYUSHENGHUOHEGONGZUOZHONGYUDAOZANSHIHUOZHANGSHIJIANXUANERWEIJUEDEKUNNAN,ZHENGCHUZAIBIXUJIEJUEERWUFAJIEJUEDESHIKE,ZHEIZHONGYALIYICHAOYUELEGERENSUONENGCHENGSHOUDENENGLI;SANSHIXIEJIAOYOUSHUOZHEYISHIDANGDEFANGSHIJIAYISHUOFU;SISHIJIAOPAITICHUDEZONGZHINENGMANZUDANGSHIRENDEXUYAO、LIYIHEXIANGFA。

  换言之,人们之所以会痴迷邪教,有着外因——痴迷人员所处不良社会生存环境和邪教欺骗性因素,以及内因——个人性格、挫折经历、三观等原因。要彻底转化邪教痴迷人员,取得教育转化工作的好成效,需要遵循教育转化规律,围绕改善痴迷者的生存环境外因、消除邪教迷惑控制人因素、改变个人信邪内因这三个影响思想彻底转化的三要素开展工作。

  二、运用社会工作方法“内外兼治”帮教邪教痴迷人员

  1、ZHONGJIANSHEHUIZHICHIWANGLUO,XIAOCHUXINXIEWAIYIN

  SHEHUIGONGZUOBIAOMINGMEIGERENDOUSHISHENCHUXITONGZHONGDEREN,DOUCHUYUZHENGSHIZIYUANXITONGHEFEIZHENGSHIZIYUANXITONGLI。ZHENGSHIZIYUANXITONGYOUMINZHENGBUMEN、LAODONGBUMEN、JIEDAOJUWEI、SHEHUIFUWUJIGOU、SHEQUYIYUANDENGSHEHUIXINGZIYUANYIJIQUNTUANZUZHIDEDANWEI、GONGHUI、CANLIAN、GONGQINGFULIANDENG;FEIZHENGSHIZIYUANXITONGYOUJIAREN、QINQI、PENGYOU、TONGSHI、TONGXUE、LINJUDENG。ZHEIXIEZIYUANGOUCHENGLEGERENDESHEHUIZHICHIWANGLUO,TIGONGQIANGDADEWUZHIHEJINGSHENZHICHI,SHIZAISHEHUIZHONGSHENGCUNHEFAZHANDEYOULIBAOZHANG。

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  XIEJIAOCHIMIZHEZAIXIEJIAODEGUHUO、JIAOSUOHEFANFUXINAOZHIXIA,DUIKUXINQUANSHUODEQINPENGSHIZUOCHOUREN,DUIJIAOYUHEWANJIUTAMENDEDANGHEZHENGFUSHIZUO“MOGUI”。ZAIXIEJIAOYANMIDEXINXIKONGZHI、QINGGANKONGZHI、JINGSHENKONGZHI、XINGWEIKONGZHIZHIXIA,XIEJIAOCHIMIRENYUANYUQINPENGGEHEYUELAIYUESHEN,MAODUNYUYANYULIE,SHENZHIGUANXIPOLIE;DUIBENKETIGONGGEZHONGFULIZHENGCEBANGFUDEZHENGFUJIGOUCHOUHENDIDUI,LAOSIBUXIANGWANGLAI。TAMENZHUJIANYUANLIZHENGCHANGRENJIQUAN,ZHUANERTOURUXIEJIAOHUAIBAO,ZAIXIEJIAOZUZHICHUXUNQIUGUISHUGANHEQINGGANYITUO,SHENZHIBAQIANCAIHESHENXINDOUFENGXIANJIXIEJIAOZUZHI,WANQUANTUOLISHEHUIZHICHIXITONG,ZAOCHENGYANZHONGSHIYINGSHEHUIBULIANGDEGEZHONGXIANSHIKUNJING。

  YINCI,YAOZHONGSHIZHONGJIANXIEJIAOCHIMIRENYUANDESHEHUIZHICHIXITONG,YIXIEZHUTAMENJIEJUEXIANSHIKUNNAN,XIAOCHUXINXIEWAIYIN。YAOGENJUXIEJIAOCHIMIZHEMIANLINDEGEZHONGKUNJING,PUJIGEZHONGHUIMINZHENGCE,TIGONGQIUZHUTUJING,YINDAOTAMENJIJILIANJIESHEHUIZIYUAN,XIEDIAOZHENGFUGEBUMENHEZUZHI,BANGZHUJIEJUEXIANSHIKUNNAN,“SHOURENYIYU”DIBANGZHUTAMENTONGGUOSHEHUIZHENGCHANGTUJINGJIETUOKUNJING、MANZUZISHENXUQIU,SAOQINGQISIXIANGZHUANHUADEXIANSHIZHANGAI。RUWEIJINGJIKUNNANZHESHENQINGDIBAO、TESHUBUTIE、LIANZUFANG、WEIFANGGAIZAO、JIUYEBANGFUHUOZHEJINGZHUNFUPINDENG;WEIJIHUANZHEJIANCHA、ZHILIAOJIBING,LUOSHIYIBAO,XIEDIAOZHIYUANZHEHUOCISHANZUZHIGUANHUAIZHAOGU;WEIFASHENGLINLIHUOZHENGDICHAIQIANJIUFENZHEXIEDIAOGEDIAOJIEBUMENHERENYUANDIAOJIEMAODUN、TUOSHANCHULI;WEIYINXIEJIAOGUHUOSHIQUGONGZUOZHEXIEDIAOQIDANWEI,ZHENGQUFUGONG;WEISHOUXIEJIAOMENGPIANZHISHISHIXUE、TUIXUEZHEXIEDIAOGEYOUGUANBUMENSHIXIANFUXUE;WEIQIANQUEYANGLAOBAOZHANGLAOWUSUOYIZHE,ZHENGQUZHENGCEBUQISHEBAO,LINGQUTUIXIUJINLAOYOUSUOYANG;WEIYOUHUNYINCHONGTUZHEDIAOJIEFUQIGUANXI,HUIFUGANQINGSHENZHIFUHUN;WEIQINZIBUHEGUDUWUYIZHEDIAOJIEJIATINGMAODUN,XIUFUQINZIGUANXISHIQIANXIANGWANNIAN;WEIYOUJIATINGBAOLIHUOXINLIZHANGAIZHE,LIANLUOFULIANHUOXIANGGUANZHUANYEJIGOU,XIEZHUZHILIAOJIEJUEDENGDENG。

  2、SHENRUXITONGJIEPI,XIAOCHUXIEJIAOJINGSHENKONGZHI

  YAOZHUANHUAXIEJIAOCHIMIRENYUANSIXIANG,XUYAODUIXIEJIAODEBENZHIHEWEIHAIJINXINGCHEDIDEJIEPI,RANGCHIMIRENYUANRENQINGXIEJIAOZHENMIANMU,TUOLIQIJINGSHENKONGZHI。KEYIZHENDUIBUTONGXIEJIAODEGONGXINGHEGEXING,YANJIU、ZHENGLICHUYIXILIEXIANGHUGUANLIANDEJIEPIZHUANTI,RUXIEJIAOWEIFAZHUANTI、FANKEXUEFANZHENGFUFANSHEHUIZHUANTI、PIANQIANLIANCAIZHUANTI、POHUAIJIATINGZHUANTI、HAIRENDUOMINGZHUANTI、WAILIXIESHUOJIEPIZHUANTI、XIEJIAOJIAOZHUSHIRENBUSHISHENZHUANTIDENGDENG。ZAIBANGJIAOXIEJIAOCHIMIRENYUANSHI,KEYIPEIYIBUTONGSHIPIN、ZILIAOHEZUOZHENGSHILI,JIEHEGEXUEKEZHISHI,FENZHUANTIDUIXIEJIAOJINXINGSHENRUDEXITONGJIEPI。DUIMEIYIZHUANTIDEJIEPIDOULIQIUZUODAOLUOJIYANJIN、ZHENGJUCHONGZU、HUANHUANXIANGKOU,KEYIDUOZUOBIYU、TONGSUYIDONG,SHIHEBUTONGWENHUACHENGDUDEQUNZHONGLIJIE。

  HAIYAOGENJUXIEJIAOCHIMIRENYUANBUTONGDECHIMIYUANYINHEZHENGJIE,YOUZHENDUIXINGDIKAIZHANBANGJIAOGONGZUO。RUDUIXIWANGXINXIEZHIBINGDEQUNZHONGYAOTONGGUOLIEJUGEZHONGXIANSHISHILI,JIEHETAMENDEZHENSHISHENTIQINGKUANG,SHUOQINGXIEJIAO“BAOZHIBAIBING”DEXUNUOZHISHIYINRENSHANGGOUDE“HUANGZI”;DUIYINHUNYINCUOZHE、QINGGANBUSHUNERJINGSHENJITUOZAIXIEJIAODEQUNZHONG,YAODUOGUANXINTONGLI,XIXINFENXI,TICHUDUICE,XIEZHUQICHULIHAOXIANGGUANWENTI;DUIYUZHUIQIUCHENGXIANCHENGFO、DUOBIZAINANSHANGTIANTANGDEXUEYUAN,YAODUOJINXINGKEPU,JIELUXIEJIAOJIAOZHUGEZHONG“SHIRENBUSHISHEN”DETIEZHENG;DUIRENTONGXIEJIAOLILUNXUNQIUZONGJIAOXINYANGDEXUEYUAN,KEYIDUOBUCHONGZONGJIAOZHISHI,JINXINGZHENGXIEDUIBI,RANGQIFENQINGZHENGJIAOYUXIEJIAODEQUBIE;DUIYINLISHIHUOGERENQIANTUSHOUCUOERDUISHEHUIBUMANDEXUEYUAN,KEYIDUOJIANGZHONGGUOJIN、XIANDAISHIHEDANGSHI,ZHANSHIGUOJIAFAZHANCHENGJIU,DUIBIZHONG、XIFANGSHEHUIZHIDUDEXIANZHUANG,JIFAQIMINZURENTONGGANHEAIGUOQINGGAN,JIESHIXIEJIAOCHONGDANGXIFANGFANHUASHILIDEZHENGZHICHOUTAI……ZONGZHI,ZAIQUANMIANJIAOYUSHULIDEQINGKUANGXIA,HAIYAOYINRENERYI,YOUSUOCEZHONG,CUSHIXIEJIAOCHIMIRENYUANZAISHISHIYUZHENGJUMIANQIANYIBUBURENSHIDAOXIEJIAODEBENZHI、WEIHAIJIQIWEIFAXING,XIAOCHUXIEJIAOZAITAMENTOUNAOZHONGZHIRUDEXINLINGBINGDU(WAILIXIESHUO)DEYINGXIANG,CUSHIQISIXIANGZHUANHUA。

  3、JIFAQIANNENGCUJINGERENCHENGZHANG,XIAOCHUXINXIENEIYIN

  RENMENCHIMIXIEJIAO,YOUZHEGERENGAOZHIMINXINGYINSUDEYINGXIANG——GERENRENGETEZHI、SIWEIMOSHI、RENZHIFANGSHI、XINGWEIMOSHI、SANGUANPIANCHADENG。YINCI,YAOZHUZHONGGENJUBUTONGXIEJIAOCHIMIRENYUANDEWENTIHEXUYAO,TONGGUOSHEHUIXINLIFUWUTIXI,TIGONGYOUZHENDUIXINGDEJIAOYUHEFUWU。RU:DUIYURENGEBUJIANQUAN、RENZHIHUOXINLIYOUZHANGAIDE,TIGONGGETIHUOTUANTIXINLIZIXUN、SHAPANYOUXIZHILIAO、XINLIGONGZUOFANGDENGFUWU,ZHUQIRENSHIZIWO,ZOUCHUXINLIYICHANGZHUANGTAI;DUIYUYOUSHEHUIXINGWENTI,RUSHEHUISHIYINGBULIANG、SHEHUIGONGNENGTUIHUA、SHEHUIJIAOWANGZHANGAIDENG,ZECAIYONGGEANGONGZUO、XIAOZUGONGZUO、TUOZHANXUNLIANDENGSHEHUIGONGZUOFANGFA,TIGAOQISHIYINGSHEHUINENGLI;DUIYUSANGUANPIANCHADE,ZETONGGUOGULITAMENCANJIAGEZHONGTUANTIHUODONG、PEIXUNKECHENGYIJIXIANGSHOUGEZHONGZHENGFUGOUMAIFUWUXIANGMU、GONGYIXIANGMUDENG,TANTAOJIAGUOQINGHUAI、SIXIANGDAODE、CHUANTONGWENHUADENGHUATIHUOYINGPIAN,TUOKUANQIZHISHIMIAN,SHULIJIANKANGJIJIDEGUANNIAN,ZENGQIANGSHIFEIFENBIANNENGLIDENG。ZONGZHI,TONGGUOJIFAQIQIANNENG,CUJINQIGERENCHENGZHANG,TISHENGZIXIN,GAISHANGERENNEIBURENGE、SIWEIJIEGOU,JIAOZHENGXIEJIAOCHIMIRENYUANDEBULIANGRENZHIHEXINGWEIMOSHI,ZHONGSUQIJIAZHIGUANNIAN、RENSHENGTAIDU,“SHOURENYIYU”DITISHENGTAMENMIANDUI、JIEJUEWENTIDENENGLI,JIECHUTAMENCHIMIXIEJIAODENEIYIN。

  4、CHIXUBANGJIAOBANGFU,GONGGUWENDINGSIXIANG

  XIEJIAOCHIMIZHESIXIANGZHUANHUAZHISHIDIYIBU,YAOXIANGTAMENZOUWENYIHOUDELUBIXUZHONGSHIGONGGUGONGZUO。RUZHENDUIGANGFANGQIXIEJIAOSHICHANSHENGKONGXUMIMANGDEZHUANHUARENYUAN,YAOJISHIYINDAOTAMEN,TIANBUSIXIANGKONGBAIHESHENGHUOZHICHENGDIAN,JIEJUEPOHOUZHONGLIWENTI。CHULEJIXUSHENHUAJIEPIJIAOYUWAI,KEYITIANCHONGKEXUEWENHUAJIAOYU、ZHENGMIANJIAOYUYIJIZHONGSUSANGUANJIAOYU,RANGTAMENDEJINGSHENYOUJIANKANGDEXINNIANZHIDAO;HAIKEYIDUOTAOLUN、GUIHUARIHOUDEJIATING、GONGZUO、SHENGHUO,RANGTAMENZHONGSHIQINQINGHERENSHENGMUBIAO;TONGSHIHAIYAOYINDAOTAMENRENSHIZIWO,DIAOZHENGXINLI,TISHENGZIXIN,XUEXIGEZHONGSHIYINGJIATINGHESHEHUISHENGHUODEJINENG。TONGGUOJINYIBUGONGGUJIAOYU,BANGZHUZHUANHUARENYUAN“SIXIANGTUOPIN”、“TOUNAOZENGZHI”、“JINGSHENLIHUN”,ZOUWENZHUANHUAZHILU。

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  RUYUAN“FALUNGONG”XIEJIAOCHIMIZHEWEIMOU,YINWEIXIEJIAOHUODONGLIANGCIBEIYIFACHULI,ERDULIHUN,PAOJIAQIZI。TACHENGWEIGUJIAGUAREN,SHENGHUOWUYIWUKAO,JINGSHENGENGJIAJINMIDIJITUOZAIXIEJIAOZHONG,SIXIANGJIDUCHIMI。WOMENYUNYONGSHEHUIGONGZUOFANGFA,GONGZUOZHONGCAIQUYIZENGQIANGQISHEHUIZHICHIWANGLUOWEIZHUXIAN,GUANCHUANYIXIEJIAOJIEPIJIAOYUJIXINLIFUDAOWEIFUZHUDEMOSHI,CONG“YOUSHISHIJIAO”CHUFA,YINDAOWEIMOUXUNZHAOSHEHUIZIYUAN,ZENGQIANGSHEHUIZHICHIWANGLUO。RULIANXITAYUANZAIQINGHAIDEMEIMEILAIGUANGDONGGONGZUO,WEIQISONGQUQINQINGDEWENNUAN,ZAIJIYUSIXIANGSHANGDEBANGJIAO;LIANXITAQIANFU,JIEJUECAICHANBUCHANGWENTI,SHIQIJINGJISHANGYOUSHENGCUNDEBAOZHANG;LIANXIQIHUJISUOZAIDI,ANZHENGCEJIEJUETASHEHUIYANGLAOBAOXIAN、LIANZUFANGDENGWENTI,SHIQILAOYOUSUOYANG。ZAIPEIBANWEIMOUJIEJUEYIXILIEXIANSHIKUNNANDEGUOCHENGLI,ZHUJIANXIUFUTADESHEHUIZHICHIWANGLUO,SHIQIDUIZIJIDECHUJINGHENENGLIYOULEGENGQINGXINGDERENSHI,TONGSHIZAIJIEPIJIAOYUZHONGZHUJIANRENSHIDAO“FALUNGONG”DEXIEJIAOBENZHI,JITARENSHENGDAILAIDEKUTONG,SIXIANGDEYICHEDIZHUANHUAGUOLAI。ZHIHOU,WOMENBENZHEYIRENWEIBENDEZONGZHI,“FUSHANGMASONGYICHENG”,JIXUGUANZHUWEIMOUHUIGUISHEHUIHOUDESHENGHUO,JISHIFAXIANQIAOHUIBUYIYOUSANGSHISHENGHUOMUBIAODEXINLI,LIANXIWEIWEIMOUTIGONGXINLIZIXUNFUWU,JIYUBIYAODEQINGGANZHICHI。TONGSHIGULITARONGRUWEISHEHUIFUWUDESHENGHUO,YINDAOTAZHUJIANHUIFUZIXIN,SIXIANGBAOCHILEZHANGQIWENDING。

  参考文献:

  1.ZHUMEIHUA,WENJUN.《SHEHUIGONGZUOSHIWUSHOUCE》.SHEHUIKEXUEWENXIANCHUBANSHE.2006NIAN2YUEDI1BAN.

  2.LUOHUI.GUOJIAZHILITIXIXIANDAIHUASHIYUXIADEXIEJIAOZHILI.PINGDINGSHANXUEYUANXUEBAO.2018(04):18-21.




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